Week 10

EDET 674 Week 10 Essential Question: How can we manage the change that is inherent in our distance learning efforts?

“Knowing how to manage change and convert it into knowledge is a key determinant of personal and national economic effectiveness,” (Moore, et.al, page 290). Information is continuously changing and working people, especially educators, have to stay up to date with their skills. The easiest way to provide those instructions, resources, and interactions to help people stay current, is through distance education.

There are several ways we can manage this change. The first is, managing the cost of education and training. “In the future the majority of learning will occur through distance education (Moore, et.al, page 276). Managing the cost to create online platforms, content, etc., and having enough students enrolled in the program, should compensate for the creation of it.

“With the World Wide Web becoming more available, course designers are given more opportunities to offer a richer variety of media with high quality video and audio programming,” (page 278). With that said, professional development should be reviewed and evaluated every few years to ensure teachers are learning the skills to effectively teach in this digital age. There are five characteristics that are considered key to providing PD (Rasmussen, et.al, 2016).

  • A focus on teaching specific content,
  • The integration of specific teaching practices or pedagogy into the PD,
  • The engagement of participants in active learning,
  • Collective participation of teaching from the same grades/subjects,
  • Delivery with an extended duration

Evaluation is essential in determining how effective PD is. There are five levels of evaluation that should be considered. The first and lowest level is the measurement of participants’ reaction to the PD. The second is if they learned something. The third level looks at support from the organization that facilitates the PD. The fourth is whether or not participants continue using the skills obtaining from the PD and lastly, evaluating student learning outcomes as a result of teacher change (Rasmussen, et.al, 2016).

Change can be scary, especially when it comes to how we teach our students. I know teachers who refuse to use technology because of their lack of skills. Professionals should continually seek ways to improve their practice. According to Rafferty, there are three things that could help people stay current and move ahead out of their comfort zone, they are: adding skills, tools, and resources to their professional toolbox.


Moore, Michael G., and Greg Kearsley. Distance Education: A Systems View of Online Learning. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.

Rafferty, J. (2016, September 16). Insights from the Field: Moving Outside Our Comfort Zone – OLC. Retrieved November 08, 2016, from http://onlinelearningconsortium.org/insights-field-moving-outside-comfort-zone/

Rasmussen, C.L. & Byrd, D.R. (2016). Evaluating Continued Use of an Online Teacher Professional Development Program with a Sustained Implementation Scale. Journal of Online Learning Research, 2(2), 145-167. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

Week 9 Reflection

This week we looked at how different countries around the world are pursing online education. During the instructional team’s lesson, one of the things Dan mentioned was how some people are “anti-online education” and why they felt it was less effective. After reading Josie’s post and seeing her list of pro’s, I started thinking why some people are against online education. My conclusion was “on the job” training. For instance, when I did part of my student teaching in the village, I had limited one-to-one interaction with the instructors and my peers. However, when I did the other half of my student teaching on campus, I had a lot of interaction with both. Both instances certainly had it’s advantages and disadvantages. For instance like Josie mentioned online education’s pros: flexibility and cost.

Week 9

EDET 674 Week 9 Essential Question: What lessons can we take from Global Distance Learning Efforts?

“Distance education is found in some form in every country of the world,” ((Moore, et.al, page 271). In the past, a lot of third world countries have relied on print, radio and television as the main form of communication. Nowadays, it’s mobile technologies that are taking over. Some examples of online degree programs throughout the world include United Kingdom Open University (UKOU), the Open University of China (OUC), Korea National Open University (KNOU), PROFORMACAO, Open University of Catalonia (UOC), and the Distance Learning programs at the University of Alaska.

UKOU (United Kingdom) was the first Open University and is the premier model of distance education (Moore, et.al, page 244). Its original mission was to provide adults who were denied attendance in a conventional university, opportunities to higher education. There were no prerequisite qualifications for admission into an undergraduate program. They had to be 18 years or older, and pay a small tuition fee (about $7,500). These adults were employed and studied part time. They have over 600 courses offered online, and even work with businesses/corporations in meeting staff development needs. All course materials, resources, forums, etc. are found on their website “StudentHome.”

OUC (China) has the world’s largest distance education program. It has 44 open regional universities, 1,000 municipal and 2,000 county open universities, and 60,000 tutorial centers (Moore, et.al, page 246). They combine satellite, cable and broadcast tv, radio, Internet, computer programs, and printed materials. They offer 75 majors in 9 disciplines and 24 specialties. Their learning centers organize all classes, register students, collect tuition, distribute course materials, and appoint tutors (page 247).

KNOU (Korea) required students to participate in face-to-face tutorials, and video conferencing between peers and faculty (page 249). They have a Digital Library System, which holds audio and videotapes on almost 600 subjects. They are available for checkout or downloading from the Internet.

PROFORMACO, which is a program designed in Brazil, is a nationwide project that provides training to unqualified elementary teachers. Most of these teachers are found in rural, under developed parts of the country. All of the course materials were designed by highly qualified specialists, distributed by HQ video programs (page 250).

UOC (Catalonia) describes itself as an e-learning institute (page 262). They have over 50,000 students enrolled, 200 faculty members, and offers over 1,200 mastery’s degree programs, post-graduate and extension programs (page 263). Grades are sent to mobile devices, home study packages are delivered monthly, and they have a UOC channel on YouTube.

Lastly, the University of Alaska has three main campuses. The UA System is dedicated to provide undergraduate and graduate degrees, certificates, endorsements, and courses, offered entirely online or in blended formats (https://distance.alaska.edu). All programs offered can be achieved without any on-campus, or face-to-face participation (https://distance.alaska.edu/programs/).

“University of Alaska Fairbanks’ eLearning programs range from foundational occupation endorsements and certificates all the way to online graduate degrees. Our degree and certificate programs cover a variety of fields, from medical coding and reception to information technology. With so many programs to choose from, and with the flexibility of online courses, UAF’s eLearning courses are a great way to begin or further your educational and professional career,” (https://elearning.uaf.edu/degrees/).

I was able to complete my undergraduate degree from UAF. What I really like is the UA System and how I can find everything there: registration, fees, class schedule, etc. Thanks to the online degree program, I’m able to continue my education and pursue my Masters.


Distance Learning. (n.d.). Retrieved November 02, 2016, from https://distance.alaska.edu/programs/

Distance Learning. (n.d.). Retrieved November 02, 2016, from https://distance.alaska.edu/

Moore, Michael G., and Greg Kearsley. Distance Education: A Systems View of Online Learning. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.

Online Degrees at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. (n.d.). Retrieved November 02, 2016, from https://elearning.uaf.edu/degrees/


Week 8 Reflection

This week we listed what we would require instructors to know before teaching a online course we designed. I think one of the most important is to have an instructor that provides an atmosphere that is welcoming. This goes for both online and in class environments. I know that if I felt unwelcomed, or didn’t feel that connection, I wouldn’t want to attend class. I read from both Amy and Theresa’s post that they would either require the instructor to take the class beforehand, or attend an orientation about the class and how to run the program. That hadn’t come to mind, and I thought that was a great idea.

Week 8

EDET 674 Week 8

Essential Question: What would you require of instructors who taught a course you designed?

When I read the essential question of the week, I immediately thought about sub plans and what the subs would need to know to run my classroom. If I were to design an online class, instructors would need to know, and do a lot to successfully teach the content.

There’s a list consisted of “Functions of Instructors in Distance Education” that they should be able to follow. They consist of content management, student progress, learner support, and course effectiveness (Moore, et.al, page 129):

  • Course Management- an effective online instructor should be able to: elaborate on the course content, supervise and moderate discussions, and supervise individual/group projects.
  • Student progress- an online instructor should: grade assignments and provide feedback in a timely manner, keep student records, help manage student study, and motivate their students.
  • Learner support- a supportive online instructor would answer or refer administrative, technical, or counseling questions.
  • Course effectiveness- a good online instructor should be able to evaluate the effectiveness of their course; how well their students are learning and progressing.

Handling assignments is another key component that an online instructor would need to effectively track. According to “Before the Online Course Begins,” they should be able to set up Gradebook, clearly state assignment expectations/rubrics, and staying on schedule with assignments/grading feedback.

Online instructors should be able to interact efficiently in three different ways (Moore, et.al, page 132). The first is learner-content interaction, which is the process of planned learning assisted by the teacher. The second is learner-instructor interaction, which is interacting with the students after the content has been presented. The last is learner-learner interaction; which is interaction between the learners.

There are four sets of techniques instructors should learn for guiding them through the web conferences (Moore, et.al, page 137). They are humanizing, participation, message style, and feedback. Humanizing is creating a learning environment that supports individual and group rapport. Participation is making sure there is enough interaction between the instructor and the learners. Message style is how you’re presenting the information and lastly feedback is how students will learn about their progress. According to “Before the Online Course Begins,” the instructor should create a student contact spreadsheet; which could include, phone numbers, email address, blog roles, etc.

Teaching online classes takes a lot of practice and skills. If I created an online class, the instructor would need to be able to do all of these things and some more. I think the most important is building an online community based on comfort, conferment, and camaraderie, which is basically “the art of niceness,” (page 144).


Before the online course begins . . . (2016, August 21). Retrieved October 25, 2016, from https://www2.uwstout.edu/content/profdev/teachingonline/before.html

Moore, Michael G., and Greg Kearsley. Distance Education: A Systems View of Online Learning. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.



Week 7

EDET 674 Week 7 Essential Question: How can we support students in being successful in our online course?

There are many ways we can support students being successful in our online courses. First of all, students who have never taken an online course before should attend orientation. This could lessen the tension or anxiety the student might have. The orientation meeting can help students become familiar with procedures, expectations, course materials, accessing content on the web, submitting assignments, etc. (Moore, et.al, page 153). The orientation can also discuss ways to be successful when taking online classes. The discussion can include: time management, study skills, goal setting, motivation, learning preferences, and technology skills (www.pcc.edu).

Another way we can help students be successful in taking online classes is making sure each and every one of your students has access. This could be access to the Internet, access to support services, access to technology, etc. (page 157). I think one of the biggest factors in determining the success of your students, is learning about their cultural and educational background (page 160). They might not have Internet at home, or lack of support in their education. Learning about your students can help you provide the support or access they need to be successful online learners.

“One thing online and in-class courses have in common is that students still need a place to study or complete assignments, whether that’s at a coffee shop, the school library, or at home,” (Lytle, 2013). To help students be successful online learners, we can advise them to have a consistent study schedule and location. We can also teach them how to stay organized, or find their own ways to stay on top of their work. “Students really need to be organized from the beginning to be successful in an online course,” (Lytle, 2013).

According to Morrison, we should provide students resources in technical, academic and study planning, to help them be successful online learners. Resources for technical skills include basic web skills: e-mail, uploading files, using Google drive, bookmarking sites, Blackboard, etc. Resources for academic skills include: writing help (OWL, e-tutoring, grammar, and math (Kahn Academy). Resources for study skills include study habits, time management, tracking due dates, and staying on track.

There are many ways we can help our students be successful online learners. A few things that have helped me be successful are staying consistent and organized. I set myself schedules, and keep everything organized. I think these two factors go together. I know for sure if I wasn’t consistent and staying on top of everything, my work would be unorganized and I wouldn’t be able to complete my assignments.


Lytle, R. (2013, January 14). 5 Tips to Succeed in an Online Course. Retrieved October 18, 2016, from http://www.usnews.com/education/online-education/articles/2013/01/14/5-tips-to-succeed-in-an-online-course

Moore, Michael G., and Greg Kearsley. Distance Education: A Systems View of Online Learning. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.

Morrison, D. (2014, April 09). Resources to Help Students Be Successful Online in Three Areas: Technical, Academic & Study Planning. Retrieved October 18, 2016, from https://onlinelearninginsights.wordpress.com/2014/04/09/resources-to-help-students-be-successful-online-in-three-areas-technical-academic-study-planning-skills/

Portland Community College. (n.d.). Retrieved October 18, 2016, from https://www.pcc.edu/about/distance/students/tips-for-success/






Reflection Week 6

I learned a lot about online assistive technologies. I mentioned in Amy’s post that before this last week, I was uncertain of how I can differentiate instruction to meet the needs of all students if I were ever to teach on online class. I certainly feel more confident in choosing what I can use and what will help students along the way. There are things I never heard of before like face mouse. Josie mentioned she used several online assistive technologies, which made me realize the apps that I use in my classroom with my students are assistive technology. My students use Raz kids, which has speech to text and some other applications.

EDET 674 Week 6 Essential Question: What assistive or adaptive tools could be helpful as I create my online courses?

There are many tools and media online educators must think about when designing online courses. The main technologies are print, recorded audio and video, interactive audio and video, and Internet technologies (Moore, et.al, page 72). These assistive tools can be helpful when creating online courses.

Printed text in distance education has had a huge impact on the speed of producing materials (Moore, et.al, page 74). When it’s done electronically, text, illustrations, diagrams and pictures can all be created faster. The Web and Web page creation tools have made it easier for documents to be downloaded and distributed easier and faster.

There are many ways audio and video tools can help online courses. Some of the ways recorded audio can be used include: talking students through parts of the material, talking about real objects that student holds for observation, talking through students manipulating procedures, providing examples of sounds, etc. (page 77). The benefits of using both audio and video assistive technology are presenting the views of experts who would not normally be beyond the reach of the students, and streaming videos to present online courses (page 78). Screen-cast-o-matic is tool I used in the past to audio record and display my PowerPoint at the same time. YouTube is the best known video and podcasting sites allow audio or video files to be stored and downloaded to computers, cell phones, etc. (page 85).

Another assistive tool that can be used in online classes, are web-based conferencing systems. The student interacts with the instructor via network (page 79). This tool provides a high-quality opportunity for the student to interact in real time using personal computers. The primary role of the instructor is to facilitate the discussion forums. “One golden rule for teaching by any technology is that the technology must be reliable and near-transparent, with sound quality good enough not to interfere with the message,” (page 80).

Another assistive technology that can help online learning, is the use of mobile devices. Smartphones and tablets can be integrated in so many ways: accessing information from the Internet, listening/viewing podcasts, communicating with classmates and teachers, recording/note-taking, creating and sharing documents, taking photos/videos, and coordinating schedules or activities (page 86).

According to McClary, there are eight universal design principles of quality distance learning courses:

  1. Equitable use: ensuring content is available to all learners.
  2. Flexible use: involves content offered in multiple formats.
  3. Simple and intuitive: students are familiar with the same platform for learning.
  4. Perceptible information: involves enhancing content with descriptors, captions and transcriptions- providing alternatives to access content.
  5. Tolerance for error- opportunities to easily correct errors.
  6. Low physical and technical effort- students’ technology maintenance should be limited.
  7. Community of learners and support- good course design incorporates group learning, and employs technology to facilitate those interactions at a distance.
  8. Instructional climate- Instructors stay connected and involved.

One of the main concerns for online education is how teachers are differentiating instruction to ensure quality education for everyone. Technology vendors are making efforts to create new products that meet the needs of students with physical disabilities (McCrea, 2013). According to www.teachthought.com, some assistive technologies being utilized for students with disabilities include:

  • screen readers- which are software programs that allow blind or visually impaired users to read the text that is displayed on the computer screen with a speech synthesizer,
  • video-magnifiers- uses a video camera to display a magnified image for students with low vision,
  • FaceMouse- allows students to use their head and facial gestures to perform tasks.

There are many assistive technologies that can be helpful when creating online classes. ACTIONS is a model used to make decisions about the use of technology (page 90):

Access: where will students learn; at home, work, or a local center?

Costs: what are capital and recurrent; fixed and variable?

Teaching functions: what are presentational requirements of the subject?

Interaction: what kind of teacher and student interaction will be possible?

Organization: what changes in organization will be required to facilitate the use of technology?

Novelty: will the trendiness of this technology stimulate funding and innovation?

Speed: how quickly and easily can material be updated and changed?


8 Helpful Assistive Technology Tools For Your Classroom. (2013, May 15). Retrieved October 11, 2016, from http://www.teachthought.com/the-future-of-learning/technology/8-helpful-assistive-technology-tools-for-your-classroom/

McClary, J. (n.d.). Factors in High Quality Distance Learning Courses. Retrieved October 11, 2016, from http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/summer162/mcclary162.html

McCrea10/31/13, B. (2013, October 31). Who’s Serving Online Learning’s Forgotten Students? — THE Journal. Retrieved October 11, 2016, from https://thejournal.com/Articles/2013/10/17/Whos-Serving-Online-Learnings-Forgotten-Students.aspx?Page=1

Moore, Michael G., and Greg Kearsley. Distance Education: A Systems View of Online Learning. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.




Reflection Week 5

This week I learned a lot about what takes place “behind the scenes” of online course design. I now understand how much time instructors need to prepare to meet all students’ needs. One of the things that really stuck with me about designing courses online, was the layout of the webpage: white space, font, length of reading… all these little things are factors that can keep your students engaged or lose interest. This is especially true for me because when I see a lengthily reading assignment, I lose interest. I read that we should keep our sentences or learning objectives, short and sweet and to the point. Dan made a good point that the ISD model acts as a guide, it helps us stay organized and structured, and limits the number of trial and errors; which I agreed on.